The evaluation of the origin of a product, i.e. the identity of its manufacturer, is an important matter for many industrial and commercial sectors.
Preventing the illicit exploitation of established brands in which market and profit are taken is not the only objective of anti-counterfeiting. Even more important is to protect the final purchaser who expects to buy an original product, conform to the quality specifications necessary for its given purpose. The supply chain is another process affected and often exploited for the production and distribution of fake products.
The counterfeit product, intended to be sold on illegitimate business, is typically made with inferior materials and significantly lower quality of assembly compared to the original. However, these features are difficult to determine by the final consumer or by the trader who receives a proposal from a wholesaler.
The solution to the problem has always been based on the addition of distinctive elements on the product that are clearly visible and…